The Minister of Interior, Mr Rauf Aregbesola, has lamented that only 30 million Nigerians have so far registered for the National Identity Card. Aregbesola made the disclosure while responding to questions during a special Town Hall meeting on security in Katsina State on Tuesday. “30 million Nigerians registered for the National ID cards project. “I …
From demanding monetary favours for good grades to pestering female students for sexual favours, educational institutions in the country have been reduced to dens of sexual predators, becoming increasingly dangerous for the development of girls. Continue reading S3X-FOR-GRADE: What every girl must know at Vanguard Nigeria.
Frank Ikpefan, Abuja The resumed negotiation on the full implementation of the new minimum wage between the Federal Government and Organised Labour has ended without an agreement. The parties agreed to resume negotiations on Wednesday at 2pm. Details shortly…
By Chinonso Alozie Suspected armed herdsmen Tuesday night attacked a hunter named Eze Anorue, in Amakohia-ubi community in Owerri west local government area of Imo state, and left him with different sizes of machete cut. An eyewitness told Vanguard in Owerri, that Anorue, who was attacked between 8 and 9 pm, has been rushed to …
The Federal Government and representatives of organised labour have failed to reach an agreement on the full implementation of the new minimum wage, which includes the consequential adjustments of salaries for civil servants from grade level 7 to 17. Members of both parties will also meet tomorrow (Wednesday) to finalise and possibly reach an …
By Peter Duru – Makurdi A middle-aged woman Mrs Grace Zeku was at the weekend reportedly attacked by suspected armed herdsmen who chopped off her left arm at Gboogyo village in Guma local government area of Benue state. The victim was said to be in her farm in the community bordering Nasararwa state when her …
Adamu Suleiman, Sokoto The federal government has been urged to reorganise and revamp the security architecture using modern technology and massive recruitment of the right personnel with active involvement of community leaders in the process. This call was contained in a nine-point communique signed by the Emir of Argungu, Alhaji Isma’ ila Mera and Isah …
Aggrieved Workers of the Kaduna Electric Distribution Company on Tuesday protested over non-payment of salaries and non-remittance of their two years pension to their respective Pension Fund Administration (PFAs). The workers under the umbrella of the National Union of Electricity Employees blocked the gate of the corporate headquarters of the company located in …
Elo Edremoda, Warri A man simply identified as William has been killed in a resumed communal clash between Aladja and Ogbe-Ijoh communities in Udu and Warri South-West council areas of Delta state. His death has reportedly caused tension among residents in the communities. Although the cause of the crisis was still sketchy as at …
The Kano State Government has promised to investigate the case of nine children who were kidnapped and trafficked from Kano to Anambra State. The governor, Abdullahi Umar Ganduje, gave the assurance in a statement signed by his Chief Press Secretary, Abba Anwar, on Tuesday. He also gave an assurance that the arrested suspects would …
President Muhammadu Buhari has commiserated with victims of natural disasters, especially floods that ravaged some states, particularly across the Southwest and Southeastern parts of the country. The President made his feelings known in a statement by his Senior Special Assistant on Media and Publicity, Malam Garba Shehu, in Abuja on Tuesday. According to the Nigerian …
President of the Senate, Ahmad Lawan, speaks during plenary in the Senate Chamber in Abuja The 2020 Appropriation Bill submitted to the National Assembly last week by President Muhammadu Buhari on Tuesday scaled second reading on the floor of the Senate. The upper chamber has subsequently adjourned plenary till 29th November 2019, to enable Ministries, …
Governor Abdullahi Ganduje of Kano State has promised to ensure that justice is done for the nine children and victims of kidnapping from the state. Abba Anwar, the chief press secretary to the governor made this known in a statement in Kano on Tuesday. Ganduje quoted the governor as saying that the suspected kidnappers already …
By Emmanuel Elebeke The Executive Vice Chairman of the Nigerian Communications Commission, NCC, Professor Umar Danbatta says the Commission is deploying lawful facilities to ensure the protection of children from harmful online practices. Prof. Danbatta stated this in his remarks at a joint ITU-DBI workshop held on Tuesday in Abuja. He said there was a …
The Federal Republic of Nigeria is a West African country.
Countries bordering Nigeria include the Republic of Niger to the north, the Republic of Chad to the northeast, Cameroon to the east, and Benin to the west.
The southern part of the country lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean.
Nigeria has had inhabitants for thousands of years.
The country's other moniker is the "Giant of Africa" due to its economic importance and large population.
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world.
The country is teeming with diversity, with over 250 ethnic groups and 500 languages.
While the majority of Nigerians identify as either Christian or Muslim, some groups still practice traditional Nigerian religions.
Their constitution defines them as a democratic secular state.
Currently, Nigeria is experiencing an economic boom.
It has one of the largest economies in the world, and it's still growing.
However, with the quality of life, Nigeria is not considered a first-world country.
Its scores on the Human Development Index are low.
Despite this, Nigeria is a country that is on the rise.
It is a founding member of the African Union, and it ranks on the list of the "Next Eleven" economies on track to be the largest in the world.
Nigerians call their country Naija to express their patriotism.
The Naija people pride themselves on their intelligence and strength.
The early civilisations of northern Nigeria date back to 999 AD, based on records found in cities such as Kano and Katsina.
Also in northern Nigeria was the Nok civilisation, which thrived from 1500 BC to 200 AD.
The terracotta figures that have been discovered in the country are some of the oldest sculptures found in sub-Saharan Africa.
Nigeria held out against colonisation for hundreds of years.
Beginning in the 10th century, the Igbo people of the Kingdom of Nri resisted conquest from outsiders until Britain took over in the early 1900s.
Nri is the root of the Igbo culture, which still exists in areas of Nigeria today.
Yoruba, another ethnic group in Nigeria, had major cities in Ife and Oyo.
The earliest signs of settlement in Ife date back to the 9th century.
The kingdom of Oyo once stretched from western Nigeria to present-day Togo.
At one point, the Benin empire reached as far as the city of Eko (modern-day Lagos) and beyond.
The Benin empire eventually became the country of Benin.
A significant development came in the 1800s when a successful jihad established the Sokoto Caliphate.
The territory controlled by the Sunni leader Usman dan Fodio lasted until 1903 when European colonisation led to the break-up of the Empire into various colonies.
During the Middle Ages, Nigeria reigned as a trade power.
Trade routes in the country led all over western, northern, and central Africa.
In the 16th century, Nigeria began direct trade with Portuguese explorers.
Much of this trade occurred along the coast.
This period also marked the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade by European powers, including Portugal, Great Britain, and the Netherlands.
Nigeria was home to many major slave-trading posts, including the Bight of Biafra, Badagry, the Bight of Benin, and Bonny Island.
Most of the slaves traded here were victims of war and raids.
Numerous slave routes emerged, linking the inland areas with the coastal trading posts.
Some of the prominent slave traders included the Oyo Empire, the Aro Confederacy, and the Sokoto Caliphate.
Slavery was widespread in the Caliphate.
Most slave labours were agricultural, and by the late 1800s, the area held the most significant slave concentration in the world.
It's estimated that the Sokoto Caliphate had over 2 million slaves.
Great Britain outlawed the international slave trade in 1807 and established the West Africa Squadron in an attempt to stop the slave trade.
They enforced punishment of anyone caught trying to smuggle slaves and re-settled the seized slaves in Freetown, a West African colony.
After Britain established an anti-slave trade leadership in Lagos, a treaty was signed in 1852.
Britain declared Lagos, an official colony in 1861.
In the late 1880s, the British established the Royal Niger Company with Sir George Taubman Goldie as its leader.
Slowly, Britain consolidated its hold in modern-day Nigeria.
The country finally became part of the British Empire in 1901.
Britain allowed the establishment of Christian missions in the colony, but it did not discourage the practice of Islamic religion.
They also did not encourage Christian missions in the Islamic parts of the country.
This established regional differences, which still exist today.
Naija Civil War, Independence, & Democracy
The country gained independence from Britain in 1960 although they retained the Queen as the head of state.
In 1963, the country established the Federal Republic.
Cultural differences between ethnic groups were noticeable.
A series of successive military coups led to repeated overthrows of the government.
In 1967, tensions came to a head and led to a civil war that lasted 30 months.
Estimates put the number of dead anywhere between one to three million people.
Foreign countries such as Britain, France, the Soviet Union, Israel, and Egypt were involved in the conflict as well.
Nigeria remained unstable for over 30 years.
Military groups reigned, and unrest continued until eventually, the country established a democracy.
They adopted a new constitution in 1999, giving birth to the modern nation and government of Nigeria.
While some of the problems from years of military rule remained, the democratisation of the country has put them on a track to becoming a world power.
Nigeria's present-day government is a federal republic.
The structure of governance has been modelled after the United States. Executive power rests with the President.
The country elects presidents by popular vote, with term limits of 2 four-year terms.
General Muhammadu Buhari, the current President, was elected in 2015 and re-elected in 2019 for his second term.
A Senate and House of Representatives comprise the National Assembly, which balances presidential powers.
Their Senate holds 109 Senators - 3 from every state and one from the capital city of Abuja (the capital).
Senators are elected by popular vote.
The House of Representative holds 360 seats.
The number of representatives is based on the population size of each state.
The country's two major parties are the People's Democratic Party of Nigeria and the All Progressive Congress.
The parties are mainly secular and pre-national.
Corruption has plagued the country since its independence, with many critics citing a culture of corruption in the government and electoral processes.
However, Nigeria has demonstrated notable efforts to address governmental corruption.
Nigeria is the world's 32nd largest country, comparable to Venezuela.
It is about two times the size of the US state of California.
The highest point in the country is Chappal Waddi, a hill that measures 2,419 metres tall.
The principal rivers are the Niger and the Benue, which empty into the Niger Delta.
This delta is one of the world's largest and is home to a large population of Central African mangroves.
In the south, tropical rainforest climates dominate the land with an annual rainfall of over 60 inches.
The southeast holds the Obudu Plateau, and coastal plains characterise the southwest and southeast.
Between the far south and far north is a savannah.
Rainfall is minimal, and the area holds the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, Sahel savannah, and Sudan savannah.
Lake Chad is in the dry northeast corner of the country, shared with Cameroon, Chad, and Niger.
Nigeria is a mixed economy emerging market.
The World Bank states that the country has reached a lower-middle-income status, placing it in a higher tier than most of Africa.
The country's stock exchange is the second largest in the continent and ranked as the 21st in GDP worldwide in 2015.
Nigeria supplies 11% of America's oil imports and is the largest trading partner of the US in sub-Saharan Africa.
The US is its largest foreign investor.
As of 2014, Nigeria has overtaken South Africa to become the biggest economy in Africa.
Nigeria's most lucrative market is the oil industry.
They are the world's 12th largest producer and the 8th largest exporter of oil.
While most of the oil fields are small, they account for about 62% of production.
The 16 largest fields produce 38% as of 1990.
Agriculture is a significant trade in the country, with about 30% of its people employed in this sector.
Major crops include beans, maize, palm oil, rubber, rice, soybeans, and more.
Cocoa is the leading non-oil exchange earner.
However, the growth of the agricultural sector has failed to keep up with Nigeria's population boom.
The country relies mostly on imports for food.
In less than 20 years, Nigeria saw a 60% population increase.
As of 2017, the population stands at around 191 million people.
Most of the population is under the age of 14, with the second-largest age group being 25-54 years old.
The median age was 18.4 years old in the 2017 census.
The country makes up about 17% of the total population of Africa.
As of 2019, one in six Africans is Nigerian.
Lagos is the largest city in the country, with an estimated population of over 13 million people.
The country has been home to over 521 languages although nine of them are now extinct languages.
The country's official language is English, chosen to help unite the country during British rule.
The Naija people have over 250 ethnicities.
The largest ethnic groups in the country are also some of the oldest - the Hausa, the Yoruba, and the Igbo.
This three account for over 70% of the population.
Other major ethnicities include the Edo, Ijaw, Kanuri, Jukun, and Igala.
These make up 25-30%, and other minority groups comprise the remaining 5%.
The government provides free education, but attendance is not required, so many lower-class groups are under-served.
The education system is made up of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary, three years of senior secondary, and 4-6 years of university education in many areas.
Organised crime is an issue in Nigeria, particularly with drug trafficking.
Heroin and cocaine are the main products of the drug trade.
There are also some cults with political power and connections to officials.
Corruption is overwhelmingly prevalent, and piracy is also a problem.
The country has a poor record of human rights.
The US Department of State cites issues of human trafficking and sexual violence.
Discrimination and violence based on race, religion, and ethnicity are also widespread.
In the northern states, Muslim Shari'a law harshly punishes offences that range from homosexuality to drinking alcohol.
The country is well known for its homophobic stances.
As recently as 2014, a signed law decreed that married gay couples could face 14 years in prison.
Those helping them could face ten years.
Although the country signed the Maputo Protocol, a treaty securing women's rights, women in the country still face discrimination.
Forced marriages are common, as is child marriage.
Both are considered in some political platforms.
The primary source of tourism for the country is cultural and ethnic events, but the natural scenery of some areas is also a huge draw.
Millennium Park in Abuja is a large, famous park that opened in 2003.
Lagos draws in the most significant number of tourists.
Lagos is making strides to become a global city with power in the world's economy.
Many national and international festivals take place within the city.
It has become an essential part of Naija identity.
The country is also home to many beautiful beaches.
The main religions of Nigeria are Christianity and Islam, with many ethnic groups also practising traditional Nigerian religions.
The country is known for its influence on African music, especially Afrobeat and palm-wine music.
Native music and jazz have been combined to create compelling sounds for modern music.
The other main cultural component of Nigeria is the food.
Its rich flavours and unique spices create deep flavoured sauces and soups.
The food is vibrant and delicious.
Football is the country's leading sport.
The Super Eagles, the national football team, have reached the World Cup multiple times.
Nigeria is a growing and thriving country.
Its economy, its government, its people, and its culture all have a significant impact on the world.
As they grow, the world changes with them.